We aim to investigate the origin of modern pedagogy in Boliva and its direct implications for the forms of government of society. We believe that during the first decades of the 20th century a series of transformation in education were introduced for the first time that made possible the emergence of a register of ‘regulation’ in a biopolitical sense that underpinned a differentiation (urban-rural) within a framework that advanced a discourse of common national identity. Following Foucault’s perspective, we understand pedagogy through the notion of ‘government’ as a conglomerate of practices of variable leadership and contradictory, in constant change and interdependence, explaining its genealogy as part of power relations and government structures in Bolivian society. In this way, we aim to comprehend the school outside of the weighty daily atmosphere. In order to do so, we will work on documentary sources of education politics, school reports, and publications relating to the first half of the 20th century.